This extensive area has unique geology resulting from water erosion on Late Cretaceous limestone, which has given rise to impressive landscapes including the Ebro and Horadada canyons, Orbaneja del Castillo waterfall, and the protected natural spaces of Las Tuerces, Covalagua and Hoces del Rudrón.
The geological wealth of this region is accompanied by a wide assortment of indigenous flora and fauna.
The historical heritage of this area is also remarkable. Las Loras Geopark, for instance, has one of the largest concentrations of Neolithic dolmens and Romanesque buildings in Europe. Many towns in the area preserve their traditional architecture and layouts, as can be observed in Aguilar de Campoo, Urbel del Castillo, Sedano and Villadiego, for instance.
All these elements are what led this region to be included in the UNESCO Global Geoparks Network in 2017.
The wealth of the geology and landscape of Burgos extends to other areas, including the Las Merindades valleys in the north of the province. Particularly impressive is the underground karst complex of Ojo Guareña, one of the most important in Europe. There, besides magnificent caves, there are numerous testimonies to humanity’s first artistic activities, which took place during Prehistory.